Thursday, 25 August 2016

The Gandhian Era (1917-47)

Mahatma Gandhi (1893-1948) : Chronological Overview

In South Africa : 1893-1914

1893   Departure of Gandhi to South Africa.

1894   Foundation of Natal Indian Congress.

1899   Foundation of Indian Ambulance Core during Boer Was.

1904   Foundation of Indian Opinion and Phoenix Farm at Phoenix near Durban.

1906   First Civil Disobedience Movement (Satyagraha) against Asiatic Ordinance in Transvaal.

1907   Satyagraha against Compulsory Registration and Passes for Assions (The Black Act) in Transvaal.

1908   Trail and Imprisonment-Johannesburg Jail.
1910   Foundation of Tolstoy Farm (Later Gandhi Ashrama) near Johannesburg.

1913   Satyagraha against nonrecognition of non Christian marriages in Cape Town.

1914   Quits South Africa forever and returns to India, Awarded Kaisar-I-Hind for raising and Indian Ambulance Core during Boer was.

In India : 1915-1948

1915   Arrived in Bombay (India) on 9 Jan, 1915 ; Foundation of Satyagraha Ashrama at Kocharab near Ahmadabad (20 May);In 1917, Ashrama shifted at the banks of Sabarmati; All India tour.

1916   Abstain from active politics (though he attended Lucknow session of INC held in 26-30 Dec., 1916, where Raj Kumar Shukla, a cultivator from Bihar, requested him to come to Champaran.).

1917   Gandhi entered active politics with Champaran campaign to redress grievances of the cultivators oppressed by Indigo planters of Bihar (April 1917). Champaran Satyagraha was his first Civil Disobedience movement in India.

1918   In Feb. 1918,Gandhi launched the struggle in Ahmadabad which involved industries workers. Hunger strike as a weapon was used for the first time by Gandhi during Ahmadabad struggle. In which 1918, Gandhi worked for peasants of Kheda in Gujarat who were facing difficulties in paying the rent owning to failure of crops. Kheda Satyagraha was his first Non-Cooperation Movement,

1919   Gandhi gave a call for Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act on April 6, 1919 and took the command of the nationalist movement for the first time (First all-India Political Movement), Gandhi returns Kaisar-i-Hind gold medal as a protest against Jallianwala Bagh massacre - April 13, 1919; The All India Khailafat Conference elected Gandhi as its president (Nov. 1919, Delhi).

1920-22   Gandhi leads the Non -Cooperation and Khilafat Movement (Aug. 1, 1920 - Feb, 1922), Gandhi calls off Movement (Feb. 12, 1922), after the violent incident at Chauri - Chaura on Feb 5, 1922. Non-Cooperation Movement was the first mass based politics under Gandhi.

1924   Belgaum (Karnataka) session of INC-for the first and the last time Gandhi was elected the president of the Congress.

1925-27   Gandhi retires from active politics for the first time and devotes himself to 'constructive programe' of the Congress; Gandhi resumes active politics on 1927.

1930-34   Gandhi launches the Civil Disobedience Movement with his Dandi march/Salt Satyagraha (first phase:March 12, 1930 - march 5, 1931: Gandhi-Irwin Pact: march 5, 1931; Gandhi attends the Second Round Table Conference in London as sole representative of the Congress: Sep. 7 - Dec. 1, 1931; Second Phase :Jan. 3, 1932 - April 17, 1934).

1934-39   Gandhi retires from actives politics, sets up Sevagram (Vardha Ashram).

1939   Gandhi resumes active politics.

1940-41   Gandhi launches Individual Satyagraha Movement 

1942   Call to Quit India Movement for which Gandhi raised the slogan,'Do or Die' (We shall either free India or die in the attempt), Gandhi and all congress leaders arrested (Aug.9, 1942).

1942-44   Gandhi kept in detention at the Aga Khan Palace,near Pune (Aug.9, 1942-May, 1944), Gandhi lost his wife Kasturba (Feb.22, 1944) and private secretary Mahadev Desai; this was Gandhi's last prison term.

1945   Gandhi's influence on the congress wanes perceptively after 1945.

1946   Deeply distressed by the orgy of communal violence, as a result Muslim League's Direct Action call, Gandhi travelled to Noakhali (East Bengal - now Bangladesh) and later on to Calcutta to restore communal peace.

1947   Gandhi, deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan/partition Plan (June 3, 1947), while staying in Calcutta to restore communal violence, observe complete silence on the dawn of India's independence (Aug. 15, 1947). Gandhi returns to Delhi (Sep. 1947).

1948   Gandhi was shot dead by Nathu Ram Godse, a member of RSS, while on his way to the evening prayer meeting at Birla House, New Delhi (Jan. 30, 19480. He died, with 'Hey Ram' on his lips.

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