Monday, 29 August 2016

Revolt of 1857 (Causes, Nature, Importance, Outcome)

Revolt of 1857 (Causes, Nature, Importance, Outcome)
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 refers to a rebellion in India against the rule of the British East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to July 1859. The rebellion began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the cantonment of the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, western Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to East India Company power in that region, and was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.[6] The rebellion has been known by many names, including the Indian Mutiny, India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Rebellion of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion, the Indian Insurrection and the Sepoy Mutiny.

Causes

The causes of the Great Revolt of 1857 and Sepoy Mutiny may be divided into different sections


Main Events during the Gandhian Era

Rowlatt Act (1919): During the viceroyalty of lord Chelmsford, a section committee was appointed by the government in 1918 with justice Rowlatt which made certain recommendations to curb seditious activities in India. The Rowlatt Act 1919, gave unbridled powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspects, without trial. The act caused a wave of anger among the act was passed, popular agitation began against it. Gandhi Ji decided to fight against this act and he gave call for Satyagraha on April 6, 1919. He was arrested on April 8, 1919. This led to further intensification of the agitation in Delhi, Ahmedabad and Punjab.

Jallianwala bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919): The arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satypal on April 10, 1919, under the Rowlatt act in connection with Satyagraha caused serious unrest in Punjab. A public meeting was held on April 13, 1919 in a park called Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar where thousands of people including women and children assembled. Before the meeting could start General O’Dyer ordered indiscriminate heavy firing on the crowd and the people had no way out to escape. As a result hundreds of men, women and children were killed and more than 1200 people wounded. The massacre was turning point in Indo-British relations and inspired the people to provide a more unrelenting fight for freedom.

Note: Sardar Uddham Singh, an Indian patriot from Punjab, shot down Gen. O’Dyer in London in 1940.

Thursday, 25 August 2016

The Gandhian Era (1917-47)

Mahatma Gandhi (1893-1948) : Chronological Overview

In South Africa : 1893-1914


1893   Departure of Gandhi to South Africa.

1894   Foundation of Natal Indian Congress.

1899   Foundation of Indian Ambulance Core during Boer Was.

1904   Foundation of Indian Opinion and Phoenix Farm at Phoenix near Durban.

1906   First Civil Disobedience Movement (Satyagraha) against Asiatic Ordinance in Transvaal.

1907   Satyagraha against Compulsory Registration and Passes for Assions (The Black Act) in Transvaal.

1908   Trail and Imprisonment-Johannesburg Jail.